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Glossary

  • 4-ring: The format for loose NACO (National Aeronautical Charting Office) approach plates, has four holes across the top of the page for use with a binder or rings. Any 4-ring product will be compatible with these charts.
  • 7-ring: The Standard format for Jeppesen approach plates has 7 holes along the left side of the page for use in a binder. Any 7-ring product will be compatible with these charts.
  • Acoustic Noise Cancelling:

    This is the same as ANR (Active Noise Reduction). ANC is the term that Bose uses for their Noise Cancelling technology.

  • Active Noise Reduction: Active Noise Reduction (ANR) is an enhanced noise reduction technology that uses an electronic signal in the earcup to cancel certain background noise. This results in a quieter overall listening experience. In most implementations, the headset employs a microphone to interpret incoming noise and broadcast an opposing audio signal, thus canceling out certain continuous sound waves such as wind rush or piston rumble. The result is a quieter experience for the wearer.
  • ADS-B:

    Automatic dependent surveillance – broadcast is a surveillance technology in which an aircraft determines its position via satellite navigation and periodically broadcasts it, enabling it to be tracked. The information can be received by air traffic control ground stations as a replacement for secondary radar. It can also be received by other aircraft to provide situational awareness and allow self separation.

    ADS-B, which consists of two different services, "ADS-B Out" and "ADS-B In", could replace radar as the primary surveillance method for controlling aircraft worldwide. In the United States, ADS-B is an integral component of the NextGen national airspace strategy for upgrading and enhancing aviation infrastructure and operations.

    The ADS-B system can also provide traffic- and government-generated graphical weather information through TIS-B and FIS-B applications. ADS-B enhances safety by making an aircraft visible, realtime, to air traffic control

  • Airbus XLR Connector:

    The standard headset connection for Airbus, and sometimes-installed in Boeing aircraft used in European airlines. The jack consists of one round receptacle containing 5 pins. Referred to as airbus or XLR-5 pin connection.

  • ANL: Automatic Noise Limiter (ANL) is a circuit that clips peak sounds to ensure a set sound limit is not exceeded.
  • ANR:

    Active Noise Reduction (ANR) is an enhanced noise reduction technology that uses an electronic signal in the earcup to cancel certain background noise. This results in a quieter overall listening experience. In most implementations, the headset employs a microphone to interpret incoming noise and broadcast an opposing audio signal, thus canceling out certain continuous sound waves such as wind rush or piston rumble. The result is a quieter experience for the wearer.

  • Automatic Noise Limiter: A circuit that clips peak sounds to ensure a set sound limit is not exceeded.
  • Bluetooth: Bluetooth is a wireless communication technology. Having a Bluetooth adapter or Bluetooth integrated into an aviation headset allows the user to wirelessly use their cell phone or music player through the headset. This reduces cockpit clutter and allows easier access to entertainment or auxiliary communications in flight.
  • BNC: A BNC connector is a twist-lock connector for a transceiver antenna. This is the connection used most commonly for externally mounted aircraft antennae.
  • BRS: Business Radio Service (BRS) is a set of frequencies reserved for use by businesses licensed by the FCC. These are land-based mobile frequencies, not aviation or air-band frequencies.
  • CFIT: Controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) describes a collision whereby an airworthy aircraft, under pilot control, inadvertently flies into terrain, an obstacle, or water. Pilots are generally unaware of the danger until it is too late.
  • Coiled Cord:

    Commonly used for helicopter headsets, it is a flexible, spring-coiled cord similar to a traditional telephone handset cord. Best for aircraft where the headset connection is above the pilot's head, it is not recommended for aircraft with the headset connection on the instrument panel forward of the pilot.

  • Dynamic Microphone: This type of microphone operates using the principle of electromagnetic induction. They are more common for military radios. Both electret and dynamic microphones are suitable for aircraft use, but it is recommended to use headsets with the same type of microphone in an intercom system as communication problems can result when using both. Portable intercom systems are more susceptible to this problem.
  • EGNOS:

    The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) is a satellite based augmentation system (SBAS) developed by the European Space Agency. It supplements GPS. According to specifications, horizontal position accuracy should be better than seven metres. In practice, the horizontal position accuracy is at the metre level. The EGNOS system consists of three geostationary satellites and a network of ground stations. Similar service is provided in North America by the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), and in Asia, notably Japan, by the Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS).

  • Electret: This usually refers to a type of microphone that uses a permanent static-electric charge. The term electret is a combination of the words electricity and magnet. Both electret and dynamic microphones are suitable for aircraft use, but it is recommended to use headsets with the same type of microphone in an intercom system as communication problems can result when using both. Portable intercom systems are more susceptible to this problem.
  • Electret Microphone:

    This type of microphone uses a permanent static-electric charge. The term electret is a combination of the words electricity and magnet. Both electret and dynamic microphones are suitable for aircraft use, but it is recommended to use headsets with the same type of microphone in an intercom system as communication problems can result when using both. Portable intercom systems are more susceptible to this problem.

  • ENC:

    Enhanced Noise Cancellation (ENC) is equivalent to ANR (Active Noise Reduction). ENC is the term that David Clark uses for their Noise Cancelling technology.

  • G.A. Jacks:

    The standard headset connection for fixed-wing General Aviation (G.A.) aircraft is a two-plug connection. Jacks are female connectors that fit these Plugs. One is for the Microphone and the other for the Headphones.

  • G.A. Plugs:

    The standard headset connection for fixed-wing General Aviation (G.A.) aircraft is a two-plug connection. It consists of a .250 inch diameter headphone Plug (PJ-055), and a .206 inch diameter microphone Plug (PJ-068).

  • General Aviation Headset:

    An Aviation Headset for use in Civilian Fixed-Wing Aircraft. The standard headset connection for fixed-wing General Aviation (G.A.) aircraft is a two-plug connection. It consists of a .250 inch diameter headphone Plug (PJ-055), and a .206 inch diameter microphone Plug (PJ-068). These Headsets utilize various hearing protection methods.

  • General Aviation Two Plug:

    The standard headset connection for fixed-wing aircraft is a two-plug connection. It consists of a .250 inch diameter headphone Plug (PJ-055), and a .206 inch diameter microphone Plug (PJ-068).

  • GLONASS: "Global Navigation Satellite System" is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service. It provides an alternative to GPS and is the second navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision.
  • Helicopter Headset:

    An Aviation Headset for use in Civilian Helicopters. These use a single U-174/U plug and a high-impedance microphone. They will not work in a fixed-wing aircraft without an adapter because most fixed-wind aircraft utilize a two-plug connector.

  • High-Impedance:

    High Impedance microphones are appropriate for the electrical systems of civilian aircraft radios. These generally operate in an impedance range of 300-500 ohms. They will not work in military aircraft without an adapter or conversion kit.

  • High-Impedance Microphone:

    A microphone that is appropriate for the electrical systems of civilian aircraft radios. High-Impedance microphones generally operate in an impedance range of 300-500 ohms. They will not work in military aircraft without an adapter or conversion kit.

  • Internal Sidetone: Sidetone is a small amount of the transmitting sound being fed into the receiving device in order to verify that a user is in fact transmitting. This technique enables you to hear your own voice in your earpiece or speaker when you are transmitting.
  • Jeppesen-style: The Standard format for Jeppesen approach plates has 7 holes along the left side of the page for use in a binder. Any 7-ring product will be compatible with these charts.
  • Lemo:

    Panel Power provides the required Headset connections and power for ANR Headsets. An aircraft must be specifically wired for this connection. This type of connector means that the Headset does not require batteries in order to function. The connection is a small, round, 6-pin connector that is also referred to under several brand names including LEMO or Redel.

  • Low-Impedance:

    Low Impedance microphones are appropriate for the electrical systems of military aircraft radios. Low Impedance microphones operate at 5 ohms. They will not work in civilian aircraft radios without an adapter or conversion kit.

  • Low-Impedance Microphone:

    A microphone that is appropriate for the electrical systems of military aircraft radios. Low-Impedance microphones operate at 5 ohms. They will not work in civilian aircraft radios without an adapter or conversion kit.

  • METAR: METAR (Aviation Routine Weather Reports in the US) is a format for reporting weather information. It is highly standardized through International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), which allows it to be understood throughout most of the world. A typical METAR report contains data for the temperature, dew point, wind speed and direction, precipitation, cloud cover and heights, visibility, and barometric pressure. A METAR report may also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other information that would be of interest to pilots.
  • METARs: METAR (Aviation Routine Weather Reports in the US) is a format for reporting weather information. It is highly standardized through International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), which allows it to be understood throughout most of the world. A typical METAR report contains data for the temperature, dew point, wind speed and direction, precipitation, cloud cover and heights, visibility, and barometric pressure. A METAR report may also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other information that would be of interest to pilots.
  • Military Headset:

    An Aviation Headset for use in Military Aircraft. These use a single U-174/U plug and a low-impedance microphone. They will not work properly in civilian aircraft without a conversion kit or adapter since civilian aircraft require different electrical impedance for the microphone and may utilize different connectors.

  • Moving-Map: The map displayed on a GPS that scrolls with aircraft movement, giving the pilot a clear view of upcoming objects, and provides a visual representation of progress along the route of flight.
  • MSAS:

    Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) is a Japanese SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System), i.e. a satellite navigation system which supports differential GPS (DGPS) designed to supplement the GPS system by reporting (then improving) on the reliability and accuracy of those signals. A similar service is provided in America by Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), and in Europe by European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS).

  • NACO-style: The format for loose NACO (National Aeronautical Charting Office) approach plates, has four holes across the top of the page for use with a binder or rings. Any 4-ring product will be compatible with these charts.
  • NAV/COM: A transceiver that can be used for both Communication (COM) and for Navigation (NAV) via use of VOR technology.
  • NEXRAD: Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) can measure both precipitation and wind using a high-resolution network of Doppler Radars operated by the National Weather Service.
  • NRR: Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) is a measure, in decibels, of noise reduction achieved by a headset. This can be used to compare headsets, but some manufacturers do not cite NRR since it can be a misleading measure and might lead to an innaccurate comparison. NRR values can be different at different frequencies, hence the NRR of a given headset might be more effective for one aircraft vs another.
  • Panel Power:

    Panel Power provides the required Headset connections and power for ANR Headsets. An aircraft must be specifically wired for this connection. This type of connector means that the Headset does not require batteries in order to function. The connection is a small, round, 6-pin connector that is also referred to under several brand names including LEMO or Redel.

  • Panel Power (LEMO):

    Panel Power provides the required Headset connections and power for ANR Headsets. An aircraft must be specifically wired for this connection. This type of connector means that the Headset does not require batteries in order to function. The connection is a small, round, 6-pin connector that is also referred to under several brand names including LEMO or Redel.

  • Part 141:

    Flight schools certified under Part 141 provide a structured training program with a standardized training syllabus approved by the FAA. This ensures that all necessary skills are taught in a specific order through lesson plans.

    Since the Part 141 Schools are required to follow more structured paperwork, classroom, and curriculum requirements, the regulations allow the school to qualify a private pilot candidate in as few as 35 hours. However, few students can prepare for the final test in such a small amount of time, so actual results are usually longer than 35 hours.

  • Part 61:

    Flight schools certified under Part 61 offer a less structured training program. There is no requirement for a set flight or ground training schedule, dedicated classroom, stage tests, or supervising staff. However, they must still prepare their students for the same FAA Knowledge and Practical tests.

    However, since the regulations for Part 61 schools allow for less structure than schools operating under FAR Part 141, they therefore require more minimum flight hours (40 hours) to obtain your certificate or rating. However, few students can prepare for the examinations in such a short amount of time, so the difference in required hours should not necessarily be the most significant factor in choosing your school.

  • Passive Noise Reduction:

    Passive Noise Reduction (PNR) is the primary hearing protection provided by most headsets. This is accomplished by the earcup physically blocking sound from entering the ear.The noise reduction provided by traditional earplugs is an example of passive noise reduction.

  • PEP: The Peak Envelope Power (P.E.P) is a measure of radio transmitter strength. It is the average power supplied to the antenna transmission line by a transmitter during one radio frequency cycle at the crest of the modulation envelope.
  • PIREP: A pilot report (PIREP) is a report of actual weather conditions encountered by an aircraft in flight. This information is usually relayed by radio to the nearest ground station. The message would then be encoded and relayed to other weather offices and air traffic service units.
  • PIREPs: A pilot report (PIREP) is a report of actual weather conditions encountered by an aircraft in flight. This information is usually relayed by radio to the nearest ground station. The message would then be encoded and relayed to other weather offices and air traffic service units.
  • PNR:

    Passive Noise Reduction (PNR) is the primary hearing protection provided by most headsets. This is accomplished by the earcup physically blocking sound from entering the ear.The noise reduction provided by traditional earplugs is an example of passive noise reduction.

  • RAIM: Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) provides integrity monitoring of GPS for aviation applications. It evaluates GPS data using more than the minimum number of satellites and performs a consistency check. It will then alert the user if there is any erroneous information. In order for a GPS receiver to perform RAIM or Fault Detection (FD) function, a minimum of five visible satellites with satisfactory geometry must be visible to it.
  • SafeTaxi: Garmin's SafeTaxi will show you an airport diagram as well as your exact location on that airport. SafeTaxi shows Airport runways, taxiways, intersections, airport hot spots, FBO’s, and hangars while displaying the aircraft’s exact position and movement, making taxiing safer and easier at unfamiliar airports. Currently over 850 US airports are covered.
  • SBAS:

    satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) is a system that supports wide-area or regional augmentation through the use of additional satellite-broadcast messages. Such systems are commonly composed of multiple ground stations. The term SBAS is describes a‘type’ of system. The specific implementation of SBAS would be things such as WAAS or EGNOS.

  • Secure PDF: Secure eBooks are pdf or ePub files protected with Adobe eBook Digital Rights Managment (DRM), which is the industry standard eBook security platform used across a wide variety of booksellers and public libraries. Secure eBooks are restricted for use on up to 6 devices and 6 tethered devices, including Windows PCs, Macs, iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch, Kindle Fire, Android readers and more. Some secure eBooks (depending on the publisher’s requirements) are further restricted to not allow printing or the use of copy/paste functions. These restrictions, if they exist, will be noted on the description page of each eBook. Before downloading a secure eBook, you must install and authorize the free Adobe Digital Editions on your PC or Macintosh.
  • Side tone: Side tone is a small amount of the transmitting sound being fed into the receiving device in order to verify that a user is in fact transmitting.
  • SMA: An SMA connector is a standard screw-type connector for a transceiver antenna. It is not normally used on external antennae.
  • Soft Mute: This feature will instantly reduce the volume of music or cell phone input when a transmission is received on the aircraft radios. This ensures that air traffic calls are not overshadowed by an auxiliary input.
  • Squelch: A circuit used to exclude undesired low-strength input signals at or near the set frequency. It is used to eliminate general static and background noise.
  • Standard PDF: Standard eBooks are Adobe .pdf or .epub files and can be supported on many different platforms. Most handheld devices (Kindle, iPad, Nook, etc.) have an eBook reader installed that supports .pdf and ePub files. You can also download the free Adobe Digital Editions software or free Adobe Reader software to read your eBook on your PC or Macintosh. Standard Adobe eBooks are still copyrighted. Each eBook purchased is licensed for one customer at a time and may not legally be shared with other users.
  • Stereo/Mono: Headsets are available in either a stereo/mono or a mono configuration. Stereo headsets offer the advantage of independent volume control for each ear cup. They also allow the wearer to listen to music in true stereo sound. However, most aircraft intercoms are mono and using a headset set in stereo mode results in hearing radio communications out of only one side of the headset. If your headset is only working out of one side, the first step is to ensure the headset is set to mono.
  • TAF: Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs apply to a five statute mile radius from the center of an airport complex.
  • TAFs: Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs apply to a five statute mile radius from the center of an airport complex.
  • Terrain-Awareness: A GPS with terrain awareness gives the user a graphical depiction of upcoming terrain, helping the pilot avoid potential controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) situations.
  • TFR: A Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) is a geographically-limited, short-term, airspace restriction, typically in the United States. Temporary flight restrictions often encompass major sporting events, natural disaster areas, air shows, space launches, and Presidential movements.
  • TFRs: A Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) is a geographically-limited, short-term, airspace restriction, typically in the United States. Temporary flight restrictions often encompass major sporting events, natural disaster areas, air shows, space launches, and Presidential movements.
  • TSO: Technical Standard Order (TSO) performance standards for headsets used on civil aircraft. These are certifications that are required for Commercial Aircraft.
  • U-174/U Plug:

    The U-174/U Plug is the standard connection for civilian helicopters and military aircraft. The Plug measures .281 inches in diameter. While this connector is common to both civilian helicopters and military aircraft, the microphone impedance in each of those aircraft are different. Thus a military headset will not necessarily work in a civilian helicopter and vice-versa even though the headset plug is similar. The U-174/U plug fits into a standard Helicopter or U-92A/U Jack.

  • U-92A/U:

    This is a female jack that accepts U-174/U or U-93A/U Headset Plugs. These are primarily used for Helicopter or Military Headset connections.

  • U-93A/U Plug:

    This is interchangeable with the U-174/U Headset connector for Military and Helicopter use. It is distinguishable by the larger plastic housing of the Plug.

  • VOR: VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range (VOR) is a radio-navigation system for aircraft. This is the primary technology used by the NAV function of NAV/COM Transceivers.
  • WAAS: Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is a network of satellites and ground stations that provide GPS signal corrections, giving you even better position accuracy. A WAAS-capable receiver can provide position accuracy of better than three meters 95 percent of the time. WAAS is required for an installed GPS to be used for approaches, but having WAAS does not make a portable GPS legal for approaches.

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